Are you encouraging your child to get into accidents or even blind when growing up?

Erik Peper and Meir Schneider

As a young child I laid on the couch and I read one book after the other.  Hours would pass as I was drawn into the stories. By the age of 12 I was so nearsighted that I had need to wear glasses.  When my son started to learn to read, I asked him to look away at the far distance after reading a page. Even today at age 34, he continues this habit of looking away for a moment at the distance after reading or writing a page.  He is a voracious reader and a novelist of speculative fiction. His vision is perfect. –Erik Peper

How come people in preliterate, hunting and gatherer, and agricultural societies tend to have better vision and very low rates of nearsightedness (Cordain et al, 2003)? The same appear true for people today who spent much of their childhood outdoors as compared to those who predominantly stay indoors. On the other hand, how come 85% of teenagers in Singapore are myopic (neasighted) and how come in the United States myopia rate have increased for children from 25% in the 1970s to 42% in 2000s (Bressler, 2020; Min, 2019)? 

Why should you worry that your child may become nearsighted since it is easy correct with contacts or glasses?   Sadly, in numerous cases, children with compromised vision and who have difficulty reading the blackboard may be labeled disruptive or having learning disability. The vision problems can only be corrected if the parents are aware of the vision problem (see https://www.covd.org/page/symptoms for symptoms that may be related to vision problems). In addition, glasses may be stigmatizing and  children may not want to wear glasses because of vanity or the fear of being bullied.

The recent epidemic of near sightedness is paritally a result of disrespecting our evolutionary survival patterns that allowed us to survive and thrive. Throughout human history, people continuously alternated by looking nearby and at the distance.  When looking up close, the extraocular muscles contract to converge the eyes and the ciliary muscles around the lens contract to increase the curvature of the lens so that the scene is in focus on the retina — this muscle tension creates near visual stress.

The shift from alternating between far and near vision to predominantly near vision and immobility

Figure 2. The traditional culture of Hdzabe men in Tanzania returning from a hunt. Notice how upright they walk and look at the far distance as compared to young people today who slouch and look predominantly  at nearby screens.

Experience the effect of near visual stress. 

Bring your arm in front of you and point your thumb up.  Look at your thumb on the stretched out arm.  Keep focusing on the thumb and slow bring the thumb four inches from your nose.  Keep focusing on the thumb for a half minute.  Drop the arm to the side, and look outside at the far distance.

What did you experience? Almost everyone reports feeling tension in the eyes and a sense of pressure inside around and behind their eyes.  When looking at the distance, the tension slowly dissipates.  For some the tension is released immediately while for others it may take many minutes before the tension disappears especially if one is older. Many adults experience that after working at the computer, their distant vision is more fuzzy and that it takes a while to return to normal clarity.

When the eyes focus at the distance, the ciliary muscles around lens relaxes so that the lens can flatten and the extra ocular muscles relax so that the eyes can diverge and objects in the distance are in focus.  Healthy vision is the alternation between near and far focus– an automatic process by which the muscles of the eyes tightening and relax/regenerate.

Use develops structure and structure limits use

If we predominantly look at nearby surfaces, we increase near visual stress and the risk of developing myopia. As children grow, the use of their eyes will change the shape of the eyeball so that the muscles will have to contract less to keep the visual object into focus.  If the eyes predominantly look at near objects, books, cellphones, tablets, toys, and walls in a room where there is little opportunity to look at the far distance, the eye ball will elongate and the child will more likely become near sighted. Over the last thirty year and escalated during COVID’s reside-in-place policies, children spent more and more time indoors while looking at screens and nearby walls in their rooms. Predominantly focusing on nearby objects starts even earlier as parents provide screens to baby and toddlers to distract and entertain them. The constant near vision remodels the shape of eye and the child will  likely develop near sightedness.  

Health risks of sightedness and focusing predominantly upon nearby objects

  • Increased risk of get into an accident as we have reduced peripheral vision.  In earlier times if you were walking in jungle, you would not survive without being aware of your peripheral vision. Any small visual change could indicate the possible presence food or predator, friend or foe.  Now we focus predominantly centrally and are less aware of our periphery. Observe how your peripheral awareness decreases when you bring your nose to the screen to see more clearly.  When outside and focusing close up the risk of accidents (tripping, being hit by cars, bumping into people and objects) significantly increases as shown in figure 3 and illustrated in the video clip.

Pedestrian accidents (head forward with loss of peripheral vision)

Figure 3. Injuries caused by cell phone use per year since the introduction of the smartphone (graphic from Peper, Harvey and Faass,2020; data source: Povolatskly et al., 2020).

Source: https://media.giphy.com/media/308cQ2vXnA5X8Ou3jo/giphy.mp4
  • Myopia increases the risk of eye disorder. The risk for glaucoma, one the leading causes of blindness, is doubled (Susanna, De Moraes, Cioffi, & Ritch, R. 2015). The excessive tension around the eyes and ciliary muscles around the lens can interfere with the outflow of the excess fluids of the aqueous humour through the schlemm canal and may compromise the production of the aqueous humour fluid. These canals are complex vascular structures that maintains fluid pressure balance within the anterior segment of the eye. When the normal outflow is hindered it would contribute to elevated intraocular pressure and create high tension glaucoma (Andrés-Guerrero, García-Feijoo,  & Konstas, 2017).  Myopia also increases the risk for retinal detachment and tears, macular degeneration and cataract. (Williams & Hammond, 2019).

By learning to relax the muscles around the lens, eye and face and sensing a feeling of soft eyes, the restriction around the schlemm canals is reduced and the fluids can drain out easier and is one possible approach to reverse glaucoma (Dada et al., 2018; Peper, Pelletier & Tandy, 1979).

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

The solutions are remarkable simple. Respect your evolutionary background and allow your eyes to spontaneously alternate between looking at near and far objects while being upright (Schneider, 2016; Peper, 2021; Peper, Harvey & Faass, 2020).

For yourself and your child

  • Let children play outside so that they automatically look far and near.
  • When teaching children to read have them look at the distance at the end of every paragraph or page to relax the eyes.
  • Limit screen time and alternate with outdoor activities
  • Every 15 to 20 minutes take a vision break when reading or watching screens.  Get up, wiggle around, move your neck and shoulders, and look out the window at the far distance.
  • When looking at digital screens, look away every few minutes. As you look away, close your eyes for a moment and as you  are exhaling gently open your eyes.
  • Practice palming and relaxing the eyes. For detailed guidance and instruction see the YouTube video by Meir Schneider.

Create healthy eye programs in schools and work

  • Arrange 30 minute lesson plans and in between each lesson plan take a vision and movement breaks. Have children get up from their desks and move around.  If possible have them look out the window or go outside and describe the furthest object they can see such as the shape of clouds, roof line or details of the top of trees.
  • Teach young children as they are learning reading and math to look away at the distance after reading a paragraph or finishing a math problem.
  • Teach palming for children.
  • During recess have students play games that integrate coordination with vision such as ball games.
  • Episodically, have students close their eyes, breathe diaphragmatically and then as they exhale slowly open their eyes and look for a moment at the world with sleepy/dreamy eyes.
  • Whenever using screen use every opportunity to look away at the distance and for a moment close your eyes and relax your neck and shoulders.

BOOKS TO OPTIMIZE VISION AND TRANSFORM TECHSTRESS INTO TECHHEALTH

Vision for Life, Revised Edition: Ten Steps to Natural Eyesight Improvement by Meir Schneider.

TechStress-How Technology is Hijacking our Lives, Strategies for Coping and Pragmatic Ergonomics by Erik Peper, Richard Harvey and Nancy Faass   

YOUTUBE PRESENTATION, Transforming Tech Stress into Tech Health.

ADDITIONAL BLOGS THAT FOCUS ON RESOLVING EYES STREAN AND TECHSTRESS

REFERENCES

Andrés-Guerrero, V., García-Feijoo, J., & Konstas, A.G. (2017). Targeting Schlemm’s Canal in the Medical Therapy of Glaucoma: Current and Future Considerations. Adv Ther, 34(5), 1049-1069.

Bressler, N.M. (2020). Reducing the Progression of Myopia. JAMA, 324(6), 558–559.

Chen, S. J., Lu, P., Zhang, W. F., & Lu, J. H. (2012). High myopia as a risk factor in primary open angle glaucoma. International journal of ophthalmology5(6), 750–753.

Cordain, L.,  Eaton, S.B., Miller, J. B., Lindeberg, S., & Jensen, C. (2003). An evolutionary analysis of the aetiology and pathogenesis of juvenile‐onset myopia. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 80(2), 125-135.

Dada, T., Mittal, D., Mohanty, K., Faiq, M.A., Bhat, M.A., Yadav, R.K., Sihota, R., Sidhu, T,, Velpandian, T., Kalaivani, M., Pandey, R.M., Gao, Y., Sabel, B,A., & Dada, R. (2018). Mindfulness Meditation Reduces Intraocular Pressure, Lowers Stress Biomarkers and Modulates Gene Expression in Glaucoma: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Glaucoma, 27(12), 1061-1067.

Hansraj, K. K. (2014). Assessment of stresses in the cervical spine caused by posture and position of the head. Surgical Technology International, 25, 277–279.

Harvey, R., Peper, E., Booiman, A., Heredia Cedillo, A., & Villagomez, E. (2018). The effect of head and neck position on head rotation, cervical muscle tension and symptoms. Biofeedback. 46(3), 65–71.

Min, L.P. (2019). Speech by Dr. Lam Pin Min, Senior Minister of State for Health, Singapore, at the opening of the Sangapore National Eye Centre’s Myopia Center, 16 August, 2019.

Peper, E. (2021). Resolve eyestrain and screen fatigue. Well Being Journal, 30(1), 24-28.

Peper, E., Booiman, A., Lin, I.M., & Harvey, R. (2016). Increase strength and mood with posture. Biofeedback. 44(2), 66–72.

Peper, E., Harvey, R. & Faass, N. (2020). TechStress: How Technology is Hijacking Our Lives, Strategies for Coping, and Pragmatic Ergonomics. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.

Peper, E., Lin, I-M., Harvey, R., & Perez, J. (2017). How posture affects memory recall and mood.  Biofeedback.45 (2), 36-41.

Peper E., Pelletier K.R., Tandy B. (1979) Biofeedback Training: Holistic and Transpersonal Frontiers. In: Peper E., Ancoli S., Quinn M. (eds) Mind/Body Integration. Springer, Boston, MA.

Povolotskiy, R., Gupta, N., Leverant, A. B., Kandinov, A., & Paskhover, B. (2020). Head and Neck Injuries Associated With Cell Phone Use. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 146(2), 122-127.

Schneider, M. (2016). Vision for Life, Revised Edition: Ten Steps to Natural Eyesight Improvement. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Schneider, M. (2019). YouTube video Free Webinar by Meir Schneider: May 6, 2019.

Susanna, R., Jr, De Moraes, C. G., Cioffi, G. A., & Ritch, R. (2015). Why Do People (Still) Go Blind from Glaucoma?. Translational vision science & technology4(2), 1.

Williams, K., & Hammond, C. (2019). High myopia and its risks. Community eye health32(105), 5–6.


Nutrition to support the Stress Response

Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food

-Hippocrates, the Greek physician and father of medicine.

What should I eat? More greens, more Vitamin D, more fish, no meats, no grains, or should I become a vegetarian, go on a ketogenic diet, or evolutionary diet? There are so many options. What are the best choices?

The foods we eat provide the building blocks and energy source for our body. If you eat high quality foods, the body has the opportunity to create and maintain a healthy strong structure; on the other hand, if you eat low quality foods, it is more challenging to create and maintain a healthy body. The analogy is building a house.  If the materials are high quality, the structure well engineered and well built, the house has the opportunity to age well.  On the other hand, if the house is built out of inferior materials and poorly engineered, it is easily damaged by wind, rain or even earthquakes.

Although we are bombarded with recommendations for healthy eating, many of the recommendations are not based upon science but shaped by the lobbying and advertisement efforts of agribusiness. For example, the scientific recommendations to reduce sugar in our diet were not implements in the government guidelines. This demonstrates the power of lobbying which places profits over health.

Officials at the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services rejected explicit caps on sugar and alcohol consumption. Although “the preponderance of evidence supports limiting intakes of added sugars and alcoholic beverages to promote health and prevent disease.” (Rabin, 2020). 

To make sense out of the multitude of nutritional recommendations, watch the superb presentation by Dr. Marisa Soski, ND, Nutrition to Support Stress Response.* She discusses how and what we eat has direct impact on how our bodies manage our reactions to stress.

*Presented April 16, 2021 at the Holistic Health Series on Fridays: Optimize Health and Well-Being Lecture Series. The series is sponsored by the Institute for Holistic Health Studies and Department of Recreation, Parks, Tourism, San Francisco State University.    

Reference

Rabin, R.C. (2020). U.S. Diet Guidelines Sidestep Scientific Advice to Cut Sugar and Alcohol. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/29/health/dietary-guidelines-alcohol-sugar.html


Configure your brain to learn and avoid Zoom fatigue [1]

Adapted from: Peper, E., Wilson, V., Martin, M., Rosegard, E., & Harvey, R. (2021). Avoid Zoom fatigue, be present and learn. NeuroRegulation, 8(1), 47–56. https://doi.org/10.15540/nr.8.1.47

After a while, it all seems the same.  Sitting and looking at the screen while working, taking classes, entertaining, streaming videos and socializing.  The longer I sit and watch screens, the more I tend to feel drained and passive, and the more challenging it is to be present, productive and pay attention.

Overnight, the pandemic transformed college teaching from in-person to online education. Zoom[2] became the preferred academic teaching and learning platform for synchronous education. Students and faculty now sat and looked at the screen for hours. While looking at the screen, the viewers were often distracted by events in their environment, notifications from smartphones, social media and email, which promoted multitasking (Solis, 2019).  The digital distractions causing people to respond to twice as many devices with half of our attention—a process labeled ‘semi-tasking’- meaning getting twice as much done half as well.

For many students synchronous online learning was more challenging, especially after teaching was shifted to a Zoom environment without adapting the course materials to optimize online learning. During polling of 325 undergraduate university students at a metropolitan university who were all taking synchronous online Zoom classes, the vast majority reported that learning was somewhat to extremely difficult, with only the minority of students (approximately 6%) preferring online learning as shown in Figure 1. 

Figure 1.  Survey of 325 Undergraduates comparing Zoom online learning compared to the previous in person classes. Approximately 94% had moderate to considerable difficulty with on line learning.

The increased self-report on difficulty experienced in synchronous Zoom online learning may also affect academic achievement.  At the same time, many people have reported an increase in physical, behavioral and psycho-emotional problems  (e.g. backache, headache, stomachache, eye-strain, sore neck and shoulder pain, over or under eating, over or under sleeping, over or under exercising, ruminative thoughts related to categories of anxiety/fear, boredom/numbness, depression/sadness, anger/hostility, etc) (Fosslien & Duffy, 2020; Lee, 2020; Intolo, 2019; Leeb et al, 2020; McGinty et al, 2020; Peper & Harvey, 2018; Peper, Harvey and Faas, 2020). 

This post explores factors that contribute to zoom fatigue and offers practical suggestions to optimize learning during synchronous Zoom online education. The concepts are derived from our teaching athletes to sustain peak mental and physical performance, with the implication that the same concepts can help students towards sustaining on-topic attention during online learning (Wilson & Peper, 2011). In sports, the coach can help guide the athlete; however, the athlete needs to be present and motivated.  Faculty have a responsibility to support, encourage, and engage students while students have the responsibility to configure themselves into an optimum learning state.

Part 1: Factors that contribute to Zoom fatigue

Differences in communication between live and computer communication

Until the 20th century, almost all communication included non-verbal expressions. The speaker used verbal and nonverbal expressions while the respondent would immediately show a reaction to the speaker.  There was a continuous dynamic verbal and nonverbal exchange. The listener would respond to the speaker. If they agreed they nodded their head.  If they disagreed or were intimidated they would provide alternative body movements (e.g., shake their head) or facial expressions (look away or frown).  During normal conversations, both the speaker’s facial expression and body language are noticed and responded to, which are in turn, can be used as feedback by the other person. In large group sessions with many participants, the visual feedback is reduced and facial responses are difficult to distinguish especially the gallery view. 

In a Zoom environment, both the sender and receiver are watching the computer screen without awareness that nonverbal cues are essential for the purpose of understanding not only what is being said but also for the implied meaning and its importance. These non-verbal cues are usually processed without awareness in live person-to-person exchange. While sending and receiving are usually simultaneous, there can exist a disconnect between the attached meanings of the encoded information and that of the decoded information due to the inconsistent existence of important nonverbal components.  In a Zoom environment, the end-result could mean multiple images of receivers providing the sender with little or no non-verbal cues with which to interpret the meaning they have attached to your message.  The person may appear to look at you; however, you do not know whether they are attending to you, have a neurological disorder and cannot respond, are reading their emails, watching YouTube videos, or texting on their phone. Additionally, the nonverbal cues they are sending may not be related to your message but to their reaction to other media, people or distractions not seen by the presenter. 

This mode of communication is different from communication patterns that evolved through natural selection and allowed the human species to thrive and survive. For the first time in human history we learn, teach, work, socialize, and entertain in front of the same screen.  In many cases, communication in the era of smartphones has been reduced to texting, writing digital responses or reacting to media content on any screen.  Over the past few decades, it is possible for people to communicate through more disembodied, off-topic and external modes of interaction. So many types of learning activities vie for our attention and can occur without leaving our chairs, thus, it may be difficult to stay on-topic online Zoom classes (Keller, Davidesco, & Tanner, 2020).

Normal communication typically involves whole body movements (face, head, arms and hands) which tends to energize or sometimes distract the speaker or listener (Kendon, 2004). When communicating with friends-we often move our bodies dynamically and responsively during the discussion.  With synchronous large online lectures, students tend to be passive and just sit and watch.[3] This state of sitting and just watching the screen is similar to watching video entertainment where we sit for a long time and are covertly conditioned not to act. 

Unknowingly, we have trained ourselves not to initiate action since the screen does not provide feedback to our responses- a process so different from talking and responding spontaneously in groups of participants.

When communication is safe, people interact, respond and chime in.  In large groups, just like large lectures, Zoom tends to inhibit this process because it delays social feedback since most people mute their microphone to avoid extraneous noise. This is usually the rule for large groups although for small groups, people often unmute themselves. The physical act of unmuting is an additional barrier to spontaneous verbal responses. This shift of attention induces a delay before responding.  From a communication perspective, a delay before responding reduces the spontaneity and is may be interpreted more negatively by the listener (Roberts, Margutti, & Takano, 2011).

Facial Expressions and Auditory Processing

Facial expressions are a critical part of non- verbal feedback and signals to the other person that they are being listened to and provide cues that the interaction is safe.  We unknowingly react to facial expressions–processed unconsciously through neuroception (Porges, 2017)–to indicate whether the person is signaling safety or danger.  Usually when the person is facially responsive and shows expression, it signals safety and allows communication and intimacy to be developed. If the person shows no facial expressions (a still/flat face), we unconsciously interpret this as a signal of danger (Porges, 2017). The importance of responsive feedback is illustrated in the study by Tronick et al (1975) where mothers were instructed not to respond with facial and body cues to their infant. The babies rapidly became highly disturbed when the mother stayed nonresponsive as dramatically illustrated in the YouTube video, Still Face Experiment: Dr. Edward Tronick (Tronick, 2007).  In adults lack of verbal and nonverbal feedback during social evaluations is extremely stressful (Gruenewald, Kemeny, Aziz, & Fahey, 2004; Birkett, 2011).

The absence of social facial and body feedback often makes teaching and learning more challenging.  Namely, are the receivers–the invisible, (only their picture or name is shown), partially visible (facial features are indistinct due to backlighting) or ghosting (those whose picture and name are shown but are physically absent from the session)–understanding the information the way the sender intended? 

Unlike traditional classroom settings where one has the benefit of seeing/sensing nonverbal cues, the Zoom gallery view often, the speaker may not know what how the audience is responding and this contributes to Zoom fatigue. In addition, the communication bond is often reduced when the speaker does not look at audience and the listener does not respond to the speaker with facial expressions.  Zoom fatigue can also be reduced when online teaching tools are used appropriately by involving active feedback responses through polls, chat, etc. as well as asking specific participants to speak and give feedback.

What is unique to the synchronous online environment is that the speakers and participants view themselves. This is the first time in human history that people are seeing themselves while speaking[4].   For some people, seeing themselves may increase anxiety and negative self-judgement- a process that is even more prevalent in teens.  Some are self-conscious and some have social anxiety and do not want their face to be shown (Degges-White, 2020).  In the past, most of us had no idea how we looked when others or ourselves are communicating—it is totally novel experience to see yourself while talking and communicating.

Reduced physical activity and increased near vision stress.

 Before sheltering in place, I would walk from my house to the BART station, take the train to Daly City station and then walk to the university.  At the university, I would climb stairs to go to my office, meet with other faculty and walk to the classroom.  At the end of the day, I would walk back to the Bart station and eventually walk home. Without any thinking or trying to do any exercise, I usually would do 12,000 steps and about 25 stairs.  Now, I am lucky if I do 3000 unless will myself to do more exercise.  –Erik Peper

The move to a Zoom environment and sheltering in place meant that we sit more and more which tends to increase mortality, decrease subjective energy and contributes to an attitude of passive engagement, more as an observer than as a participant (Stamtakis et al, 2019; Patel et al, 2018; Oswald et. al., 2020; Yalçin, Özkurt, Özmaden & Yagmur, 2020). While sitting, we also tend to slouch as we look at the screen that may be a covert factor in the increasing rates of depression and anxiety. 

This slouching position tends to decrease access to positive memories and allow easier access to negative memories (Peper et al, 2017) as well as interfere with academic performance.  Peper et al (2018) found that students have more difficulty performing mental math in the slouched as compared to upright sitting position. To reduce the impact of sitting, Peper & Lin (2012) found that when student perform some physical activities (e.g., skipping in place) for just a minute they report a significantly increase subjective energy and attention levels.

When looking at the screen our eyes only focus on the screen, which is different from in-person communication where you look at the person and then look at behind or to the side of the person. Only looking at the screen means that to focus on the screen the muscles of the eyes tighten so that the eyes can converge and the ciliary muscles around the lens contract so that the lens curvature is increased which results in near visual stress. This continuous looking at a near object is different from normal eye function in which we alternately focus on nearby objects and then look far away which allows the muscles of the eyes to relax.

Student Issues

Numerous students reported that it was much easier to be distracted and multitask, check Instagram, facebook, TikTok, or respond to emails and texts than during face-to-face classroom sessions as illustrated by two students’ comments.

“Now that we are forced to stay at home, it’s hard to find time by myself, for myself, time to study, and or time to get away. It’s easy to get distracted and go a bit stir-crazy.”

“I find that online learning is more difficult for me because it’s harder for me to stay concentrated all day just looking at the screen.” 

Students often reported that they had more difficulty remembering the materials presented during synchronous presentations. Most likely, the passivity while watching Zoom presentation affected the encoding and consolidation of new material into retrievable long term memory. The presented material was rapidly forgotten when the next screen image or advertisement appeared and competed with the course instructor for the student’s attention. We hypothesize that the many hours of watching TV and streaming videos have conditioned people to sit and take in information passively, while discouraging them to respond or initiate action (Mander, 1978; Mărchidan, 2019). Learning requires engagement, which means a shifting from passively watching and listening to being an active, participant shareholder in synchronous online classes.  However, in most cases, students have not received information/education or training on HOW TO be a more active/engaged participant in a synchronous Zoom class.

Instructor Issues

Instructors also have many of the same issues when presenting classes online. They engage in multiple simultaneous roles: presenter, director, and producer.  While teaching, they need to engage students, monitor the chat for feedback and look at the screen for facial responses.  At the same time, they may face similar technical issues as those experienced by students such as internet connectivity, limited bandwidth, and mastering the technical features of synchronous online learning technology.  At times, instructors feel that students expect each presentation to be as captivating as a TED talk.  Thus, teaching has shifted from education to edutainment

Part 2: Practical suggestions to optimize learning

To optimize learning in the synchronous online environment, teachers have the responsibility to reconfigure their teaching so that it incorporates active student involvement and students have the responsibility to be present and engaged. The following practices may facilitate learning:

Be present to learn

Mastering media presence is becoming even more important for everyone. The skill implemented in attending an online learning class will also be useful for professional development.  Although the pandemic shifted personal interviews to online interviews, most likely, synchronous and asynchronous video interviews are part of the first automatic screening level to assess candidates for a job (Rubinstein, 2020).

Be visible for the other person looking at you to create a positive impression

Adjust your camera and lights so that your face is visible and you are looking at the person to whom you are talking. Your screen presence is representing you.  Does the camera show you engaged or distracted lying on bed?  Be aware that you and your background together create an impression. The concept that looking directly at the audience– looking directly at the camera–is not new. Everyone working in media (newscasters, politicians, actors) have been trained to make their faces visible and expressive.  This means arranging your webcam at eye level right in front of you and speaking to the camera as if it is the person.  Avoid looking down at the person on the screen since the viewer would see you looking look down and away. Be sure your face is illuminated and there are no bright light sources behind you (Purdy, 2020).  We recommend that in small group, participants unmute their microphones so that people can respond spontaneously to each other unless there is excessive background noise.

Be a responsive and interactive listener to configure your brain to be engaged

Shift from being a passive absorber to an active participant even if your camera is off or the speaker cannot see you. Imagine being physically with the speaker and activate yourself by increasing your face and body animation as you are attending a synchronous online class.  Thus, when you watch a presentation, act as if you are in a personal conversation with the presenter or the material. This means that if you agree, nod your head; if you disagree, shake your head (do this naturally without making it a work task). Do this for the whole session.  Our research has shown that when college students purposely implement animated facial and body responses during Zoom classes, they report a significant increase in energy level, attention and involvement as compared to just attending normally in class (Peper & Yang, in press). See Figure 2.

Figure 2.  Change in subjective energy, attention and involvement when the students significantly increase their facial and body animation by 123 % as compared to their normal non-expressive class behavior (Peper & Yang, in press).

  “I never realized how my expressions affected my attention. Class was much more fun”

-22 year old woman student.

“I can see how paying attention and participation play a large role in learning material. After trying to give positive facial and body feedback I felt more focused and I was taking better notes and felt I was understanding the material a bit better.”-28 year old medical student

Configure your body to attend and perform

Sit upright and adapt a position of empowerment. When we sit upright and expanded it is easier to have positive thoughts and detach from negative hopeless thoughts (Peper, Lin, Harvey, & Perez, 2017; Peper, Harvey, Mason, & Lin, 2018). Students also performed better in mental math when they sat upright as compared to collapsed. When students are provided ongoing feedback when they begin to slouch by an app that uses the computer camera to monitor slouching, they reported a significant decrease in neck and back symptoms (Chetwynd et al, 2020). As one of many students reported:

“Before when I didn’t use the app, I had a lots of shoulder and neck pain. Now when I use it, the pain went way down as I kept changing posture to the feedback signal. I had more energy and I was more alert. I did notice that when I would get the alert to sit up straight.”

Optimize concentration and learning

In the online environment, the structure more likely depends upon the person unlike the externally created structure of going to work or to class. Thus, purposely creating a time structure and scheduled time-periods to perform different tasks as time management skills are associated with improved school and work performance (Macan et al., 1990).  Create an environment to promote concentration and reduce distractions.

  • Stay on task and reduce interruption and practice refocusing on task. On the average we now check our phones 96 times a day—that is once every 10 minutes and an increase of 20% as compared to two years ago (Asurion Research, 2019). Those who do media multitasking such as texting while doing a task perform significantly worse on memory tasks than those who are not multitasking (Madore et al., 2020). Multitasking is negatively correlated with school performance (Giunchiglia et al, 2018). When working or attending a class or meeting, turn off all notifications (e.g., email, texts and social media). Then block out specific times when you work on Zoom and when you respond to email, phone or social media (Newport, 2016). Let people know that you will look at the notifications and respond in a predetermined time so that you will not be interrupted while working or studying.  If you work where there are other people, arrange your workstation so that there are fewer distractions such as sitting with your back to other people. When students chose to implement a behavior change to monitor cellphone and media use and reduce the addictive behavior during a five-week self-healing project, many report a significant improvement of health and performance.  One student observed that when she reduced her cellphone use her stress level equally decreased as shown in Fig 3.

Figure 3. Example of a student changing cellphone use and corresponding decrease in subjective stress level.

During this class project, many students observed that the continuous responding to notifications and social media affect their health and productivity. As one student reported,

The discovery of the time I wasted giving into distractions was increasing my anxiety, increasing my depression and making me feel completely inadequate. In the five-week period, I cut my cell phone usage by over half, from 32.5 hours to exactly 15 hours and used some of the time to do an early morning run in the park. Rediscovering this time makes me feel like my possibilities are endless. I can go to work full time, take online night courses reaching towards my goal of a higher degree, plus complete all my homework, take care of the house and chores, cook all my meals, and add reading a book for fun!

                                                                              –22 year old College Student

  • Approached learning with a question. When you begin to study the material or attend a class, ask yourself questions that you would like to be answered. If possible, put your questions to the instructor. When you have a purpose, it is easier to stay emotionally present and remember the material (Osman, & Hannafin, 1994).
  • Take written notes while attending a Zoom meeting or class.  When participants take hand written notes versus on the computer they tend to integrate and remember the material much more than just watching passively (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). Active note taking leads to focused attention and fewer distractions from social media content (Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020).
  • Review materials. At the end of the class, meet with your fellow students on ZOOM or social media and review the class materials.  As you discuss the materials, add comments to your notes and if possible, do a hierarchical outline to more easily remember the relationships among the ideas. 
  • Change your internal language. What we overtly or covertly say and believe is what we may become. When one says, “I am stupid”, “I can’t do math,” or “It is too difficult to learn,” one may become powerless which increases stress and inhibits cognitive function.  Instead, change the internal language so that it implies that you can master the materials such as, “I need more time to study and to practice the material,”  “Learning just takes time and at this moment it may take a bit longer than for someone else,” or “I need a better tutor.” 

Create an environment to trigger the appropriate mental and emotional state for learning.

Learning and recall are state dependent.  Without awareness, the learned content is covertly associated with environmental, emotional, social and kinesthetic cues.  Thus, when you study in bed, the material is more easily accessed while lying down. When you study with music, the music becomes a retrieval cue.  Without awareness, the materials are encoded with the cues of lying down or the music played in the background.  When you take your exam in a different setting then you have studied, none of the covert cues are there, thus, it is more difficult to recall the material. Study and review the materials under similar conditions, as you will be tested. 

To configure yourself to be ready to study, work, or socialize create different environments that are unique to each category of Zoom involvement (studying, working, socializing, entertaining). Pre COVID, we usually used different clothing for different events (work versus party) or different environments for different tasks (temple, churches, mosques, or synagogue for religious practice; bar or coffee shop to meet friends). Create a unique environment with each Zoom activity. The stimuli to be associated to the specific tasks can also include lighting, odors, sound or even drinks and food. These stimuli become the classically conditioned cues to evoke the appropriate response associated with the task just as Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate by pairing a sound with the meat.  Taking charge of the conditioning process may help many people to focus on their task as so many students use their bedroom, kitchen or living room for Zoom work which is not always conducive for learning or work.

  • Wear task specific clothing just as you would have done going to work or school.  When you plan to study, put on your study T-shirt. In time, the moment you put on the study T-shirt, you are cueing yourself to focus on studying. When finishing with studying, change your clothing.
    • Arrange task specific backgrounds for each category of Zoom task. Place a different background such as a poster or wall hanging behind the computer screen-one for studying and another for entertainment. When finished with the specific Zoom event, take down the poster and change the background. 

Optimize arousal and regenerate vision

  • The longer we sit the more passive we tend to become. Teachers will benefit by interrupting the passive transfer of information by guiding students in fun short movements to increase arousal.  If instructors fail to put in movement breaks, students sitting in front of screens can remind themselves to move. The challenge is that we are usually unaware of how much time has passed as we are captured by the screen.  It is often helpful to use an app such as StretchBreak[5] to remind yourself to get up and move.
  • Get up and move every 30 minutes. After sitting for 30 minutes stretch, wiggle and move.  Do the movements with vigor or even dance, look up and reach up.  When you stand up and move your legs and feet, you tighten and relax your calf muscles that pump the venous blood and lymph fluids that have been pooling in your legs back to your heart. The calf muscle is often called the second heart because in facilitates venous blood return.
  • Regenerate vision. Our eyes tend to get tired and world looks blurry.  Interrupt the near vision stress by allowing the eyes to relax and regenerate.
  • Palming.  Bring your hands to your face and cup the hands so that there is no pressure on your eyeballs. Allow the base of the hands to touch the cheeks while the fingers are interlaced and resting your forehead. Then with your eyes closed imagine seeing black. Breathe slowly and diaphragmatically while feeling the warmth of the palm soothing the eyes. Feel your shoulders, head and eyes relaxing and do this for five minutes (Schneider, 2016; Peper, 2021).
  • Look at the distance.  Interrupt near visual stress (convergence of the eyes and tightening of the ciliary muscle around the lens allows us to focus on the screen) by looking away at the far distance.  Every so look at the clouds, top of trees or rooftops outside the window to relax the eyes.

Summary

By activating the evolutionary communication patterns that allowed us to survive and thrive and using known performance enhancement skills derived from peak performance training, we can enhance involvement and productivity. The instructor needs to stay current on methods that keep students attention. At the same time, students have a responsibility to configure themselves to optimize learning.   We recommend practices 1) to be present and learn, 2) optimize concentration and learning, 3) create an environment to trigger the appropriate mental and emotional state for learning, and 4) optimize arousal and regenerate vision.  By taking charge of your own teaching/learning process and configuring yourself to be present through active participation, learning is enhanced.

References

Asurion Research (November 19, 2019). Americans Check Their Phones 96 Times a Day. https://www.asurion.com/about/press-releases/americans-check-their-phones-96-times-a-day/#:~:text=Despite%20our%20attempts%20to%20curb,tech%20care%20company%20Asurion1.

Birkett M. A. (2011). The Trier Social Stress Test protocol for inducing psychological stress. Journal of visualized experiments: JoVE, (56), 3238. https://doi.org/10.3791/3238 

Chetwynd, J., Mason, L.A., Almendras, M., Peper, E., Harvey, R. (2020). Posture Awareness Training.  Poster presented for the 51th Annual Scientific online Meeting of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. (Dec 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 2020). https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.20194.76485

 Degges-White, S. (April 13, 2020). Dealing With Zoom Anxiety. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/lifetime-connections/202004/dealing-zoom-anxiety

Flanigan, A.E. & Titsworth, S. (2020). The impact of digital distraction on lecture note taking and student learning. Instr Sci, 48495–524. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-020-09517-2

Fosslien, L. & Duffy, M. W. (2020). How to combat Zoom fatigue. Harvard Business Review. April 29, 2020. https://hbr.org/2020/04/how-to-combat-zoom-fatigue

Giunchiglia, F. Zeni, M.,  Gobbi, E., Bignotti,E., & Bison, I. (2018). Mobile social media usage and academic performance, Computers in Human Behavior, 82, 177-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.12.04

Gruenewald, T.L., Kemeny, M.E., Aziz, N., & Fahey. J.L. (2004). Acute threat to the social self: shame, social self-esteem, and cortisol activity. Psychosom. Med, 66, 915–924. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000143639.61693.ef.

Intolo, P., Shalokhon, B.;, Wongwech, G., Wisiasut, P., Nathavanij, S., & Baxter, D.G. (2019). Analysis of neck and shoulder postures, and muscle activities relative to perceived pain during laptop computer use at a low-height table, sofa and bed. Work, 63(3), 361-367. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-192942

Jelaca, M., Anastasovski, I., & Velickovska, L.L.A. (2020). A report on the impacts of the coronovirus SARS-CO-2 “Shelter-in-place order” on fitness and well-being. Research in Physical Education, Sport and Health, 9(1), 13-18. https://doi.org/10.46733/PESH2090013j

Keller, A. S., Davidesco, I., & Tanner, K. D. (2020). Attention Matters: How Orchestrating Attention May Relate to Classroom Learning. CBE—Life Sciences Education19(3), fe5. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.20-05-0106

Kendon, A. (2004). Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. https://www.amazon.com/Gesture-Visible-Action-as-Utterance/dp/0521542936/ref=sr_1_2?dchild=1&keywords=Gesture%3A+Visible+Action+as+Utterance.&qid=1617248925&s=books&sr=1-2

Kuhfeld, M. Soland, J., Tarasawa, B., Johnson, Al., Ruzek, E., & Liu, J. (2020). Projecting the Potential Impact of COVID-19 School Closures on Academic Achievement. Educational Researcher, 49 (80, 549–565 https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X20965918

Lee, J. (2020). A neuropsychological exploration of Zoom fatigue. Psychiatric Times.  November 17, 2020. Accessed December 26, 2020. https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/psychological-exploration-zoom-fatigue

Leeb, R.T., Bitsko, R,H,, Radhakrishnan. L., Martinez, P., Njai, R., & Holland, K.M. (2020). Mental Health–Related Emergency Department Visits Among Children Aged <18 Years During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, January 1–October 17, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 69,1675– https://doi.org/10.15585 /mmwr.mm6945a3

Lemay, D.J., Doleck, T.,& Bazedlais, P. (2019). Self-determination, loneliness, fear of missing out, and academic performance. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.34105/j.kmel2019.11.025

Macan, T. H., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students’ time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 760–768. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.82.4.760

Madore, K.P., Khazenzon, A.M., Backes, C.W. et al. (2020).Memory failure predicted by attention lapsing and media multitasking. Nature, 587, 87–91. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2870-z

Mander, J. (1978).  Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television, New York: William Morrow Paperbacks.

Mărchidan, A., (2019). “More technologized is not more educated,” 2019 11th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), Pitesti, Romania, 2019, pp. 1-4, https://doi.org/10.1109/ECAI46879.2019.9041993.

McGinty, E.E., Presskreischer, R., Anderson, K.E., Han, H., &Barry, C.L. (2020). Psychological distress and COVID-19–related stressors reported in a longitudinal cohort of US adults in April and July 2020. JAMA, 324(24), 2555-2557.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.21231

Mueller, P.A. & Oppenheimer, D.M. (2014). The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard: Advantages of Longhand Over Laptop Note Taking. Psychological Science, 25(6) 1159–1168. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614524581

Newport, C. (2016). Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World. New York:Grand Central Publishing. https://www.amazon.com/Deep-Work-Focused-Success-Distracted/dp/1455586692/ref=sr_1_3?dchild=1&keywords=Deep+Work%3A+Rules+for+Focused+Success+in+a+Distracted+World&qid=1617249879&s=books&sr=1-3

Osman, M.E. & Hannafin, M.J. (1994). Effects of Advance Questioning and Prior Knowledge on Science Learning, The Journal of Education Research, 88(1), 5-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1994.9944829

Oswald, T.K., Rumbold, A.R., Kedzior, S/G.E., & Moore, V.M. (2020) Psychological impacts of “screen time” and “green time” for children and adolescents: A systematic scoping review. PLoS ONE, 15(9), e0237725. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237725

Patel, A.V., Maliniak, M.L., Rees-Punia, E.R., Matthews, C.E., & Gapstur, S.M. (2018). Prolonged leisure time spent sitting in relation to cause-specific mortality in a large US cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, 187(10), 2151–2158, https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy125

Peper, E. (2021). Resolve Eyestrain and Screen Fatigue. Well Being Journal, 30, 24-28. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/345123096_Resolve_Eyestrain_and_Screen_Fatigue

Peper, E. & Harvey, R. (2018). Digital addiction: increased loneliness, depression, and anxiety. NeuroRegulation5(1),3–8 http://dx.doi.org/10.15540/nr.5.1.3

Peper, E., Harvey, R., & Faass, N. (2020). TechStress-How Technology is Hijacking our Lives, Strategies for Coping and Pragmatic Ergonomics.  Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/232119/tech-stress-by-erik-peper-phd/ 

Peper, E., Harvey, R., Mason, L., & Lin, I.-M. (2018). Do better in math: How your body posture may change stereotype threat response. NeuroRegulation, 5(2), 67–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.15540/nr.5.2.67

Peper, E. & Lin, I-M. (2012). Increase or decrease depression-How body postures influence your energy level.  Biofeedback, 40 (3), 126-130. https://doi.org/10.5298/1081-5937-40.3.01

Peper, E., Lin, I-M., Harvey, R., & Perez, J. (2017). How posture affects memory recall and mood.  Biofeedback, 45 (2), 36-41. https://doi.org/10.5298/1081-5937-45.2.01

Peper, E. & Yang, A. (in press). Beyond Zoom Fatigue: Re-energize yourself and improve learning. Academia Letters. Adapted as a blog, Beyond zoom fatigue: Re-energize yourself and improve learning.

Porges, S.W. (2017). The pocket guide to the polyvagal theory: The transformative power of feeling safe. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. https://www.amazon.com/Pocket-Guide-Polyvagal-Theory-Transformative/dp/0393707873/ref=sr_1_2?dchild=1&keywords=The+pocket+guide+to+the+polyvagal+theory%3A+The+transformative+power+of+feeling+safe&qid=1617249068&s=books&sr=1-2

Purdy, K. (April 21, 2020).  How to Pull Off a Professional Video Call From Home. New York Times Wirecutter. https://www.nytimes.com/wirecutter/blog/professional-video-call-from-home/

Roberts F., Margutti P., Takano S. (2011). Judgments concerning the valence of inter-turn silence across speakers of American English, Italian, and Japanese. Discourse Process. 48,  331–354.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2011.558002

Rubinstein, P. (2020). Asynchronous video interviews: The tools you need to succeed. 5th November 2020 https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20201102-asynchronous-video-interviews-the-tools-you-need-to-succeed

Schneider, M (2016). Vision for Life, Revised Edition: Ten Steps to Natural Eyesight Improvement. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. https://www.amazon.com/Vision-Life-Revised-Eyesight-Improvement/dp/1623170087/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=Vision+for+Life%2C+Revised+Edition%3A+Ten+Steps+to+Natural+Eyesight+Improvement&qid=1617250077&s=books&sr=1-1

Solis, B. (2019). How Managers Can Help Workers Tackle Digital Distractions. MIT Sloan Management Review, 60(4), 1-3. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/how-managers-can-help-workers-tackle-digital-distractions/?gclid=CjwKCAiA25v_BRBNEiwAZb4-ZRuImr0A9EtQgRLl9FXmmALLPdMAjaFDDVAJSpwo7ta8vEPLW147XRoCmO8QAvD_BwE

Stamatakis, E., Gale, J., Bauman, A., Ekelund, U., Hamer, M., & Ding, D. (2019). Sitting time, physical activity, and risk of mortality in adults. J Am Coll Cardio, 73(16), 2062-2072. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.02.031

Tronick, E., Adamson, L.B., Als, H., & Brazelton, T.B. (1975, April). Infant emotions in normal and pertubated interactions. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO.

Tronick, E. (2007). Youtube video-Still Face Experiment: Dr. Edward Tronick. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=apzXGEbZht0

Wilson, V.E. & Peper, E. (2011). Athletes Are Different: Factors That Differentiate Biofeedback/Neurofeedback for Sport Versus Clinical Practice. Biofeedback, 39(1), 27–30. https://doi.org/10.5298/1081-5937-39.1.01

Yalçin, I., Özkurt, B.,  Özmaden, M., & Yagmur, R. (2020). Effect of Smartphone Addiction on Loneliness Levels and Academic Achievement of Z Generation. International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies, 7(1), 208-214. https://doi.org/10.17220/ijpes.2020.01.017


[1] We thank Professor Jackson Wilson for his incisive comments.

[2] In this paper will use Zoom as the example for synchronous online teaching although the concepts may apply equally to other platforms such Microsoft Teams and Google Meet.

[3] Zoom and other synchronous online platforms provide tools to indicate that you would like to speak (e.g., electronic hand raising); however, it is an issue of how the class session is designed (e.g., do you use breakout rooms, are there structured requests for interaction). 

[4] Zoom has a feature to hide yourself. Start or join a Zoom meeting. The meeting automatically begins in Speaker View and you can see your own video. Then, right-click your video to display the menu, then choose Hide Myself.


You heard it before. Now do it! Three tips to reduce screen fatigue

Monica Almendras and Erik Peper

For almost a year, we have managed to survive this pandemic. As we work in front of screen many people experience screen fatigue (Bailenson, 2021). The tiredness, achiness and depressive feelings have many causes such as sitting disease, reduced social contact, constantly looking at the screen for work, education, socializing, and entertaining, and the increased stress from family illness and economic insecurity. The result is that many people experience low energy, depression, loneliness, anxiety, neck, shoulder, back pain at the end of the day (Son, Hegde, Smith, Wang, & Sasangohar, 2020; Peper & Harvey, 2018).

Yet there is hope to reduce discomfort and increase by implementing simple tips.

Take breaks and take more breaks by getting up from your chair and moving. Taking breaks helps us to clear our minds and it interrupts any ongoing rumination we may have going on. Doing this helps a person be more productive at work or when studying, and at the same time it helps retain more information (Peper, Harvey, & Faass, 2020; Kim, Park, & Headrick, 2018). How many of you reading this actually take a short break at least once during work? We stay in the same sitting position for long periods of time, even holding off to go to the restroom. We tell ourselves ‘one more minute’ or ‘I’ll just finish this and then I’ll go”. Sounds familiar? We know it is not healthy and yet, we continue doing it.

Solution: Set a reminder every twenty minutes to take a short break. Download a program on your computer that will remind you to take a break such as Stretch Break (www.stretchbreak.com). Every twenty minutes a window will pop up on your computer reminding you to stretch. It gives you simple exercises for you to move around and wiggle as shown in figure 1. You can say it breaks the spell from staying frozen in one position in front of your screen. The best part is that yet is free to download on your computer. What more can you ask for?

Figure 1.  Stretch break window that pops up on your computer to remind you to stretch.

Stop slouching in front of the screen. We tend to gaze downwards to our device and slouch, which creates tension on our neck and shoulders ((Peper, Lin, Harvey, & Perez, 2017). And yet, we still wonder why people suffer from neck-shoulder pain and headaches. It is time to make a transformation from slouching and feeling aches and pains, to an upright posture to be free of pain.

Solution: Use an UpRight Go 2 device on your upper back or neck is a great way to remind you that you are slouching (Harvey, Peper, Mason, & Joy, 2020). The UpRight is linked via Bluetooth to the App on the mobile phone, and once you calibrate it to an upright posture, you will see and feel a vibrate when you slouch. For people who are on the computer for long hours, this will help you to be aware of your posture.

If wearing a small device on your back is not your cup of tea, or perhaps it is not in your budget at the moment. There is a solution for this, and that means you can download the UpRight Desktop App on your computer or laptop (Chetwynd, Mason, Almendras, Peper, & Harvey, 2020). The desktop version uses the camera from your computer or laptop to monitor your posture; however, at the camera cannot simultaneous be in use with another program such as ZOOM. This version provides immediate feedback through the graphic on the screen as well as, an adjustable auditory signal when you slouch as shown in Figure 2. It is also free to download, and it is available for PC and Mac (https://www.uprightpose.com/desktop-app/).

Figure 2. Posture feedback app. When slouching, the app provides immediate feedback through the graphic on the screen (the posture of figure turns red) and/or an adjustable auditory sound (from: Chetwynd, Mason, Almendras, Peper, & Harvey, 2020)

Relax your eyes and look away from the screen.  Many people struggle with dry eyes and eyestrain from looking at the screen for extended time periods. We log out from work, meetings, and class; to staring at the television, tablets, and mobile phones on our free time. It is a nonstop cycle of looking at the screen, while our poor eyes never have a single break. To look at the screen, we tightened our extraocular muscles and ciliary muscles; and the result is near-vision stress (Peper, 2021).

SOLUTION: The solution to relax the eyes and reduce eyestrain will not be to buy new eyeballs online. Instead, here are three easy and free things to reestablish good eyeball health. These were adapted from the superb book, Vision for life: Ten steps for natural eyesight improvement, by Meir Schneider, PhD.

  • Look out through a window at a distance tree for a moment after reading an email or clicking a link
  • Look up at a distant tree and focus at the details of the branches and leaves each time you have finished a page from a book or eBook.
  • Rest and regenerate your eyes with palming (Peper, 2021). To do palming, all you need to do is sit upright, place an object under your elbows (pillow or books) to avoid tensing the neck and shoulders, and cover the eyes with your hands (see figure 3). Cup your hands to avoid pressure on your eyes and with your eyes closed, imagine seeing blackness while breathing slowing from your diaphragm. For five minutes, feel how your shoulders, head, and eyes are relaxing, while doing six breaths per minutes through your nose. Once your five minutes are up, stretch or wiggle around before returning to your work. For detailed instructions, see the YouTube video, Free Webinar by Meir Schneider: May 6, 2019.

Figure 3. Position for palming.

Implement these tips as an experiment for a week and note how it affects you. Many people report that after three weeks, they experience less pain and more energy. By taking charge of your own computer work patterns, you have taken a first e first step into transforming your health.

REFERENCES

Bailenson, J. N. (2021). Nonverbal Overload: A Theoretical Argument for the Causes of Zoom Fatigue. Technology, Mind, and Behavior2(1). https://doi.org/10.1037/tmb0000030

Chetwynd, J., Mason, L., Almendras, M., Peper, E., & Harvey, R. (2020). “Posture awareness training.” Poster presented at the 51st Annual meeting of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.20194.76485

Harvey, R., Peper, E., Mason, L., & Joy, M. (2020). “Effect of posture feedback training on health”. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 45(3). https://DOI.org/10.1007/s10484-020-09457-0

Kim, S., Park, Y., & Headrick, L. (2018). Daily micro-breaks and job performance: General work engagement as a cross-level moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(7), 772–786. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000308

Peper, E. & Harvey, R. (2018). Digital addiction: increased loneliness, depression, and anxiety. NeuroRegulation. 5(1),3–8doi:10.15540/nr.5.1.3  https://www.neuroregulation.org/article/view/18189/11842

Peper, E., Lin, I-M., Harvey, R., & Perez, J. (2017). How posture affects memory recall and mood.  Biofeedback.45 (2), 36-41. https://doi.org/10.5298/1081-5937-45.2.01

Peper, E., Harvey, R. & Faass, N. (2020). TechStress: How Technology is Hijacking Our Lives, Strategies for Coping, and Pragmatic Ergonomics. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.

Peper, E. (2021). “Resolve eyestrain and screen fatigue.” Well Being Journal,.30, Winter 2021 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/345123096_Resolve_Eyestrain_and_Screen_Fatigue

Schneider, M. (2016). Vision for Life, Revised Edition: Ten Steps to Natural Eyesight Improvement. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Schneider, M. (2019. YouTube video Free Webinar by Meir Schneidere: May 6, 2019.

Son. C., Hegde, S., Smith, A., Wang, X., & Sasangohar, F. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on College Students’ Mental Health in the United States: Interview Survey Study. J Med Internet Res, 22(9):e21279 https://doi.org/10.2196/21279

 


Simple acts of kindness

As we emerge from the COVID pandemic and look forward to the New Year, we can bring joy and happiness though through simple acts of kindness. 


There is hope in these crazy times—three inspirational TED talks

I just received an email from the Rick Hansen Foundation that inspired me to share its recommendations. In 1957 at the age of 15, Rick Hansen injured his spinal cord and was paralyzed from the waist down. He is an inspiration for all of us. In these crazy times of sheltering in place, experiencing social isolation, anxiety, depression, racial bias, and also happiness and joy, he recommends the following TED talks to increase resilience, overcome racial bias, and achieve self-acceptance. Enjoy watching the talks as they suggest strategies to deal with adversity and offer hope for the New Year.
3 Secrets of resilient people by Dr. Lucy Hone, Co-director of the New Zealand Institute of Wellbeing & Resilience and adjunct fellow at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand.

How racial bias works-and how to disrupt it by Stanford University social psychologist, Jennifer L. Eberhardt

To overcome challenges, stop comparing yourself to other by wheelchair athlete Dean Furnes


Beyond Zoom Fatigue: Re-energize Yourself and Improve Learning

Erik Peper and Amber Yang

“Instead of zoning out and being on my phone half the time. I felt more engaged in the class and like I was actually learning something.”    -21 year old college student

Before the pandemic, roughly, two-thirds of all social interactions were face-to-face—and when the shelter-in-place order hit our communities, we were all faced with the task of learning how to engage virtually. The majority of students reported that taking online classes instead of in person classes is significantly more challenging.  It is easier to be distracted and multitask online—for example, looking at Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, TikTok, texting, surfing the internet,  responding to notifications, listening to music, or drifting to sleep. Hours of watching TV and/or streaming videos have conditioned many people to sit and take in information passively, which discourages them from actively responding or initiating. The information is rapidly forgotten when the next screen image or advertisement appears. Effectively engaging on Zoom requires a shift from passively watching and listening to being an active, creative participant.

Another barrier to virtual engagement is that communicating online does not engage all senses. A considerable amount of our communication is nonverbal—sounds, movement, visuals, physical structures, touch, and body language. Without these sensory cues, it can be difficult to feel socially connected on Zoom, Microsoft Teams, or Google Meet to sustain attention and to focus especially if there are many people in the class or meeting. Another challenge to virtual learning is that without the normal environment of a classroom, many students across the country are forced to learn in emotionally and/or physically challenging environments, which gets in the way of maintaining attention and focus. The Center for Disease Prevention (CDC) reported that anxiety disorder and depressive disorder have increased considerably in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic (Leeb et al, 2020; McGinty et al, 2020).  Social isolation, stay-at-home orders, and coping with COVID-19 are contributing factors affecting mental health especially for minority and ethnic youth. Stress, anxiety and depression can greatly affect students’ ability to learn and focus.

The task of teaching has also become more stressful since many students are not visible or appear still-faced and non-responsive.  Teaching to non-responsive faces is significantly more stressful since the presenter receives no social feedback.  The absence of social feedback during communication is extremely stressful. It is the basis of Trier Social stress test in which a person presents for five minutes to a group of judges who provide no facial or verbal feedback (Allen et al, 2016; Peper, 2020).

The Zoom experience especially in a large class can be a no win situation for the presenter and the viewer. To help resolve this challenge, we explored a strategy to increase student engagement and reduce social stress of the teacher.  In this exploration, we asked students to rate their subjective energy level, attention and involvement during a Zoom conducted class. For the next Zoom class, they were asked to respond frequently with facial and body expressions to the presentation. For example, students would expressively shake their head no or yes and/or use facial expressions to signal to the teacher that they were engaged and listening. Other strategies included giving thumbs up or thumbs down, making sounds, and changing your body posture as a response to the presentation. Watch the superb non-judgmental instructions adapted for high school students by Amber Yang.

When college students purposely implement and increase their animated facial and body responses by 123% during Zoom classes, they report a significant increase in frequency of animation (ANOVA (F(1,70) = 30.66, p < .0001), energy level (ANOVA (F(1,70) = 28.96, p < .0001), attention (ANOVA (F(1,70) = 16.87, p = .0001) and involvement (ANOVA (F(1,69) = 10.70, p = .002) as compared just attending normally in class (see Figure 1).

Figure 1.  Change in subjective energy, attention and involvement when the students significantly increase their facial and body animation by 123 % as compared to their normal non-expressive class behavior (Peper & Yang, in press).

 “I never realized how my expressions affected my attention. Class was much more fun”        -22 year old college student

“I can see how paying attention and participation play a large role in learning material. After trying to give positive facial and body feedback I felt more focused and I was taking better notes and felt I was understanding the material a bit better.”       –28 year old medical student

These quotes are a few of the representative reports by more than 80% of the students who observed that being animated and responsive helped them to stay present and learn much more easily and improve retention of the materials. For a few students, it was challenging to be animated as they felt shy, self-conscious and silly and kept wondering what other students would think of them.

Having students compare two different ways of being in Zoom class is a useful assignment since it allows students to discover that being animated and responsive with facial/body expression improves learning.  So often we forget how our body impacts our thoughts and emotions. For example, when students were asked to sit in a slouched position, they reported that it was much easier to recall hopeless, helpless, powerless and defeated memories and more difficult to perform mental math in the slouched position. While in the upright position it was easier to access positive empowering memories and easier to perform mental math (Peper et al, 2017; Peper et al, 2018). 

Experience how body posture affects emotional recall and feeling (adapted from Alda, 2018).

1) Stand up and configure your body in a position that signals defeat, hopelessness and depression (slouching with the head down). While holding this position, recall a memory of hopelessness and defeat. Notice any negative emotions that arise from this.

2) Shift and configure your body into a position that signals joy, happiness and success (standing tall, looking up with a smile).  While holding this position, recall a memory of joy and happiness. Notice any positive emotions that arise from this.

3) Configure your body in a position that signals defeat, hopelessness and depression (slouching with the head down). While holding this position, recall a joy, happiness and success. Do not change your body position.  End this configuration after holding it for a little while.

4) Shift and your body in a position that signals joy, happiness and success (standing tall, looking up with a smile).  While holding this position, recall a memory of hopelessness and defeat. Do not change your body position.  End this configuration after holding it for a little while.

When body posture and expression are congruent with the evoked emotion, it is almost always easier to experience the emotions. On the other hand, when the body posture expression is the opposite of the evoked emotion (e.g., the body in a positive empowered stance while recalling hopeless defeated memories) it is much more difficult to evoke and experience the emotion. This same concept applies to learning.  When slouching and lying on the bed while in a Zoom class, it is much more difficult to stay present and not drift off.  On the other hand, when sitting erect and upright and actively responding to the presentation, the body presence/posture invites the brain to focus for optimized learning.

Conclusion

In a Zoom environment, it is easy to slouch, drift away, and become non-responsive—which can exacerbate zoom fatigue symptoms and also decrease our capacity to learn, focus, and feel connected with the people around us. Take charge and actively participate in class by sitting up, maintaining an empowered posture, and using nonverbal facial and body expressions to communicate. The important concept is not how you show your animation, but that you actively participate within the constraints of your own limitations. For example, if a person is paralyzed the person will benefit if they do the experience internally even though their body  may not show any expression. By engaging our soma we optimize our learning experience as we face the day-to-day challenges of the pandemic and beyond.

I noticed I was able to retain information better as well as enjoy the class more when I used facial-body responses. At times, where I would try to wonder off into bliss, I would catch myself and try to actively engage in the class with body movements even if there is no discussion. Animated face/body was a better learning experience.          –21-year old college student. 

References

Alda, A. (2018). If I understood you, would I have this look on my face?: My adventures in the art and science of relating and communicating. New York: Random House.

Allen, A. P., Kennedy, P. J., Dockray, S., Cryan, J. F., Dinan, T. G., & Clarke, G. (2016). The Trier Social Stress Test: Principles and practice. Neurobiology of Stress, 6, 113–126.

Leeb, R.T., Bitsko, R,H,, Radhakrishnan. L., Martinez, P., Njai, R., & Holland, K.M. (2020). Mental Health–Related Emergency Department Visits Among Children Aged <18 Years During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, January 1–October 17, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 69,1675–

McGinty, E.E., Presskreischer, R., Anderson, K.E., Han, H., &Barry, C.L. (2020). Psychological distress and COVID-19–related stressors reported in a longitudinal cohort of US adults in April and July 2020. JAMA. Published online November 23, 2020.

Peper, E. (October 13, 2020). Breaking the social bond: The immobilized face.  The Peper Perspective.

Peper, E., Harvey, R., Mason, L., & Lin, I.-M. (2018). Do better in math: How your body posture may change stereotype threat response. NeuroRegulation, 5(2), 67–74.

Peper, E., Lin, I-M., Harvey, R., & Perez, J. (2017). How posture affects memory recall and mood.  Biofeedback.45 (2), 36-41.

Peper, E., Wilson, V.E., Martin, M., Rosengard, E., & Harvey, R. (unpublished). Avoid Zoom fa


Tips to Reduce Zoom Fatigue

Adapted from the book, TechStress: How Technology
is Hijacking our Lives, Strategies for Coping and Pragmatic Ergonomics
, by Erik Peper, Richard Harvey and Nancy Faass.

Peper, E., Harvey, R., & Faass, N. (2020), TechStress-How Technology is Hijacking our Lives, Strategies for Coping and Pragmatic Ergonomics. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.


Breaking the social bond: The immobilized face

After teaching for hours on Zoom, I feel exhausted. Zoom fatigue is real.

While talking to a close friend, all of a sudden his attention shifted from listening to me to looking his cellphone as he heard a notification.  At that moment, I felt slightly left and hurt.

Students report that when they are are talking with friends and their friends look at their cellphone or responds to a notification they feel hurt and slightly dismissed. Even though most experience this break in social bonding, almost all do this with others. The looking at the phone is the conditioned stimuli to which we automatically respond when we feel it vibrate or even when we see it.  We respond by shifting our attention to the phone in the same way that Pavlov’s dogs would salivate when they heard the bell that was conditioned with the food.  On the average we now check our phones 96 times a day—that is once every 10 minutes and an increase of 20% as compared to two years ago (Asurion Research, 2019).

To feel SAFE is essential for growth and developing intimacy.  We interpret being safe through the process of neuroception.  Without conscious awareness our brain processes facial cues to identify if the interactions are safe or not safe.  If safe, vigilance and sympathetic arousal is reduced and better communication is supported (Porges, 2017). On the other hand, if a person’s face is flat and non-responsive during a conversation, it may signal danger and trigger fight/flight in the person seeing the non-reactive face. This unconscious stress reaction to a non-responsive face is the basis of the Tier Social Stress Test.  In this stress assessment, participants are asked to give a presentation and are also given an unexpected mental arithmetic test  in front of an panel of judges who do not provide any feedback or encouragement (Allen et al, 2016)). Not receiving social feedback while communicating is one of the most stressful events –it is being stuck in social quicksand as there are no cues to know what is going on.

We wonder if the absence of confirmative facial feedback is a component of Zoom fatigue when presenting to a larger group in which you see multiple faces as small postage stamps or no face at all.  In those cases, the screen does not provide enough covert facial and body feedback to know what is going on as you are communicating.  The audience non-responsive faces may covertly signal DANGER, The decrease visual and auditory signals is compounded by:

  • Technical issues due to signal bandwidth and microphone (freezing of the screen, pixilation of the display, breakup in sound, warbling of voice, etc.).
  • Viewers sitting still and facially immobilized without reacting as they watch and listen.
  • Time delay caused by participants turning on the microphone before speaking may be negatively evaluated by the listener (Roberts, Margutti, & Takano, 2011).
  • Non-recognizable faces because the face and upper torso are not illuminated and blacked out by backlighting or glare.
  • Lack of eye and face contact because the speaker or participant is looking at the screen and their camera is to the side, below or above their face.
  • Multi-tasking by the speaker who simultaneously presents and monitors and controls the Zoom controls such as chat or screen share.

In normal communication, nonverbal components comprise a significant part of the communication (Lapakko, 2007; Kendon, 2004).  We use many nonverbal cues (lip, eye, face, arm, trunk, leg and breathing movements) as well as olfactory cues to understand the message. In most group zoom meeting we only see the face and shoulders instead of an integrated somatic body response in a three-dimensional space as we look near and far. On the other hand, in front of the computer, we tend to sit immobilized and solely look at a two-dimensional screen at a fixed distance.  As we look at the screen we may not process the evolutionary nonverbal communication patterns that indicate safety. Similarly, when child does not receive feedback as it reaches out, it often becomes more demanding or withdraws as the social bond is disconnected.  

Parents captured by their cell phone while their child is demanding attention. 
From: https://live.staticflickr.com/3724/11180721716_1baa040430_b.jpg

Communication is an interactive process that supports growth and development. When the child or a person reaches out and there is no response. The detrimental effect of interrupting facial responsiveness is demonstrated by the research of University of Massachusetts’s Distinguished University Professor of Psychology Edward Tronick (Goldman, 2010; Tronick et al, 1975).

How to maintain build social bonds

Recognize that being distracted by cellphone notifications and not being present are emotional bond breakers, thus implement behaviors that build social connections.

Zoom recommendations

  • Arrange your camera so that your face and upper torso is very visible, there is no backlight and glare, and you are looking straight at the camera.
  • Provide dynamic visual feedback by exaggerating your responses (nod your head for agreement or shake your head no for disagreement).
  • When presenting, have a collaborator monitor Chat and if possible have them shift back and forth between share screen and speaker view so that the speaker can focus on the presentation.
  • Use a separate microphone to improve sound.
  • If the screen freezes or the sound warbles often an indication of insufficient bandwidth, turn off the video to improve the sound quality.

Social bonding recommendations

  • Share with your friends that you feel dismissed when they interrupt your conversation to check their cell phone.
  • When meeting friends, turn off the cell phone or put them away in another room so not to be distracted.
  • Schedule digital free time with your children.
  • During meal times, turn off cell phones or put them in another room.
  • Attend to the baby or child instead of your cellphone screen.

For a detailed perspective how technology impacts our lives and what you can do about it, see our book, TechStress-How Technology is Hijacking our Lives, Strategies for Coping and Pragmatic Ergonomics (Peper, Harvey, & Faass, 2020).  Available from: https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/232119/tech-stress-by-erik-peper-phd/ 

References:

Allen, A. P., Kennedy, P. J., Dockray, S., Cryan, J. F., Dinan, T. G., & Clarke, G. (2016). The Trier Social Stress Test: Principles and practice. Neurobiology of stress6, 113–126.

Asurion Research (November 19, 2019).Americans Check Their Phones 96 Times a Day.

Goldman, J.G. (2010). Ed Tronick and the “Still Face Experiment.” Scientific American, Oct 18.

Kendon, A. (2004). Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press  ISBN-13 : 978-0521835251 

Lapakko, D. (2007). Communication is 93% Nonverbal: An Urban Legend Proliferates. Communication and Theater Association of Minnesota Journal, 34, 7-19.

Peper, E., Harvey, R., & Faass, N. (2020). TechStress-How Technology is Hijacking our Lives, Strategies for Coping and Pragmatic Ergonomics.  Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. ISBN-13: 978-1583947685 

Porges, S.W. (2017). The pocket guide to the polyvagal theory: The transformative power of feeling safe. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN-13 : 978-0393707878 

Roberts F., Margutti P., Takano S. (2011). Judgments concerning the valence of inter-turn silence across speakers of American English, Italian, and Japanese. Discourse Process. 48 331–354. 10.1080/0163853X.2011.558002 

Tronick, E., Adamson, L.B., Als, H., & Brazelton, T.B. (1975, April). Infant emotions in normal and pertubated interactions. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO.

 

 

 

 


Exploiting evolutionary traps: Netflix’s new movie, The Social Dilemma

Addicted to the screen (Photo from the Netflix’s docudrama, The Social Dilemma)

Apple founder Steve Jobs didn’t let his kids use the iPad, or really any product their dad invented, As Steve Jobs stated, “They haven’t used it,” “We limit how much technology our kids use at home.” (Bilton, 2014).

In 2007, Bill Gates, the former CEO of Microsoft, implemented a cap on screen time when his daughter started developing an unhealthy attachment to a video game. He also didn’t let his kids get cell phones until they turned 14 (Akhtar & Ward, 2020).

What is it that these two titans of the tech revolution and the many Silicon Valley insiders know and discuss in the  Netflix docudrama, The Social Dilemma?

They recognized the harm that occurs when monetary incentives are the singular driver to optimize the hardware (the look and feel of the cellphone)  and much more important  the software algorithms to capture the attention of the user.  It is interesting that there are only two industries that label their customers as users, illegal drugs and software (Kalsim 2020).

The longer a user is captured by the screen, the more the user responds to notifications, the more the user clicks to other sites, the more money the corporation earns from its advertisers. The algorithms continuously optimize what the user sees and hears so that they stay captured. Thus, the algorithms are designed to exploit the evolutionary response patterns that allowed us to survive and thrive. Evolutionary traps occur when adaptive behaviors that were once successful become maladaptive or even harmful. When this occurs, cues that were protective or beneficial can lead to reduced health and fitness (Peper, Harvey & Faass 2020).

Companies exploit evolutionary traps for the purpose of improving profits. This potentially constitutes a major health risk for humanity.  As quoted from the The Social Dilemma, “Your attention is the product that is being sold to advertisers”

Google, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, and others are designed to be highly addictive and incorporate some of the following evolutionary traps (Peper, Harvey & Faass, 2020):

  • We are wired to see artificial images and to hear reproduced sounds as real. The brain does not discriminate between actual and visual-auditory images that are artificial, which explains one aspect of our attraction to our phones, to binge-watching, and to gaming.
  • We are wired to react to any stimuli that suggests potential danger or the presence of game animals. Whether the stimuli is auditory, visual, tactile, or kinesthetic, it triggers excessive arousal. This makes us vulnerable to screen addiction, because our biology compels us to respond.
  • We are wired to attend to social information about power within our group, a major factor in social media addiction.

If you concerned about false news, political polarization, radicalization, increased anxiety, depression, suicides  and mental health in people, watch Netflix, The Social Dilemma and the powerful presentation by Sacha Baron Cohen’s superb presentation, Never is Now, the 2019 Anti-Defamation League Leadership Award.

What makes this film so powerful is that it is told by the same people who were the designers, developers, and programmers for the different social media companies.  

From: https://www.netflix.com/title/81254224

For an outstanding critique of social media and the power of Facebook, Twitter, and Google, watch Sacha Baron Cohen’s superb presentation at the 2019 Anti-Defamation League Leadership Award.

References:

Akhtar, A. & Ward, M. (2020, May 15). Bill Gates and Steve Jobs raised their kids with limited tech — and it should have been a red flag about our own smartphone use. Business Insider.

Bilton, N. (Sept 10, 2014). Steve Jobs was a low-tech parent. New York Times.

Kalsi, H. (2020, September 15). “It’s 2.7 billion Truman Shows”: Why ‘The Social Dilemma’ is a must-watch. Lifestle Asia Culture.

Peper, E. & Harvey, R. (2020, January 17). Evolutionary traps: How screens, digital notifications and gaming software exploits fundamental survival mechanisms. the peper perspective.

Peper, E., Harvey, R., & Faass, N. (2020). TechStress-How Technology is Hijacking our Lives, Strategies for Coping and Pragmatic Ergonomics. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books